Tags: diplomacy, FCO historian, Joshua Nkomo, Lancaster House, Lancaster House Agreement, Margaret Thatcher, Rhodesia, Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe During its deliberations, the conference reached agreement on the following topics: Following the Commonwealth Heads of State and Government meeting in Lusaka from 1 to 7 August 1979, the British government invited Muzorewa and patriotic Front leaders to a constitutional conference in Lasncaster. The aim of the conference was to discuss and agree on the terms of an independence constitution, to agree on the holding of elections under the supervision of the United Kingdom and to enable Rhodesia to achieve legitimate and internationally recognized independence, as the parties having settled their differences by political means. The agreement, signed on December 21, 1979.  Lord Carrington and Sir Ian Gilmour signed the agreement on behalf of the United Kingdom, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr Silas Mundawarara signed for the government of Zimbabwe Rhodode and Robert Mugabe and Joshua Nkomo for the Patriotic Front. At the conclusion of this agreement and the signing of its report, the parties committed that the agreement would lead to the dissolution of the unrecognized state of Zimbabwe of Rhodesia, created months earlier by the internal regulation; an agreement between moderate black nationalists and the government of Prime Minister Ian Smith. While Zimbabwe-Rhodesia has not been recognized, the internal settlement has deprived the majority of blacks (so far the main British claim) and led to the election of the country`s first black prime minister. The three-month conference was virtually unable to reach an agreement due to differences on land reform. Mugabe was put under pressure to sign, and the country was the most important stumbling block. [Citation required] Both the British and American governments proposed to compensate white citizens for each country sold to support reconciliation (the “Willing Buyer, Willing Seller” principle) and to create a fund to operate from 1980 to 1990. [Citation required] Forty years ago, on December 21, 1979, an agreement was signed at Lancaster House. This put an end to the illegal white-dominated regime dominated by Rhodesia since the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (IDU) in 1965 and inaugurated the newly independent state of Zimbabwe. The Lancaster House Agreement was an early diplomatic success for Margaret Thatcher`s new Conservative government and remains one of the most remarkable achievements of British diplomacy since World War II.
Lord Carrington, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Secretary of the Commonwealth of the United Kingdom, chaired the conference.  The conference ran from 10 September to 15 December 1979 with 47 plenary sessions. The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire and ended Rhodesian Bush`s war; and directly to the creation and recognition of the Republic of Zimbabwe. It demanded the imposition of a direct British regime, which put an end to Rhodesia`s unilateral declaration of independence in 1965. The British government would be strictly limited to the duration of a proposed election period; After that, independence would follow. It is essential that the political wings of the black nationalist groups ZANU and ZAPU, which led the escalating and increasingly violent insurgency, be able to stand in the next elections. But this was linked to the respect of the ceasefire and the confirmed absence of voter intimidation. Under the agreed independence constitution, 20% of the seats in the country`s parliament should be reserved for whites.